Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

(PMDD)

Pronounced: PRE-men-strawl dis-FOR-ick dis-OR-der

Definition

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and less common form of premenstrual syndrome. PMDD causes physical and emotional symptoms that happen 1 to 2 weeks before a menstrual period. These problems impact life.

Causes

The cause is not known.

Risk Factors

PMDD is more common in women of reproductive age and women who are White. Things that may raise the risk are:

  • A personal or family history of mental health problems, such as depression
  • Having a family member with PMS or PMDD
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Smoking
  • Extra stress or a traumatic life event

Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor

molecule and receptor
Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Symptoms

Severe problems may be:

  • Physical:
    • Fatigue
    • Cramps and bloating
    • Nausea
    • Swelling of hands or feet
    • Headache
    • Swollen or tender breasts
    • Muscle or back pain
    • Weight gain
  • Emotional:
    • Irritability and mood swings
    • Frequent crying
    • Sleep problems
    • Changes in sex drive
    • Loss of hope or control
    • Problems with focus or paying attention
    • Tension
    • Confusion
    • Restlessness
    • Loss of interest in people and activities
    • Appetite changes, such as eating too much or strong food cravings

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This may be enough to make the diagnosis. You may be asked to keep track of the problems you have over two menstrual cycles. This may confirm PMDD.

In women who do not menstruate, blood tests may be done to check hormone levels against symptoms.

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to ease physical and emotional symptoms. PMDD is first treated with habit changes. Medicines may be used when symptoms do not get better with these changes. Choices may be:

  • Exercising three times a week to ease symptoms and promote feelings of well being
  • Lowering stress through things like meditation, deep breathing, yoga, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease physical symptoms
  • Oral contraceptives to suppress ovulation
  • Antidepressants to ease depression, irritability, and some physical symptoms

Prevention

There are no guidelines to lower the risk of PMDD. The cause is not known.

RESOURCES:

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org
Office on Women's Health
http://www.womenshealth.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://sogc.org

References:

Hofmeister S, Bodden S. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Aug 1;94(3):236-240.
PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed January 17, 2020.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated May 14, 2019. Accessed January 17, 2020.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/premenstrual-syndrome . Updated August 22, 2019. Accessed January 17, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
Last Updated: 1/17/2020

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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