Labor and Delivery, Vaginal Birth
(Vaginal Birth; Labor and Delivery)
by Editorial Staff and Contributors
In a vaginal birth, the baby will come out through the birth canal. Most women give birth at around 38-41 weeks of pregnancy. However, there is no way to know exactly when labor will happen.
Reasons for Procedure
Labor is the process that positions the baby for birth, delivers the baby out of the birth canal, and passes the placenta after birth.
Your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
During pregnancy you should:
True Versus False Labor
Before true labor begins, you may have periods of false labor. These are irregular contractions of your uterus (where the baby grows during pregnancy), called Braxton Hicks contractions. They are normal but can be painful. They are usually also felt in the stomach and not the back. Timing the contractions is a good way to tell the difference between true and false labor. Note how long it is from the start of one contraction to the start of the next. Keep a record for an hour. If the contractions are getting closer together, longer, stronger, and are being felt in your back, then it may be true labor. If you think you are in labor, call your doctor.
During this process, you will prepare to deliver your baby. At the beginning of labor, the uterus will begin to contract, moving the baby down the vagina (birth canal). The cervix, the opening of the uterus into the vagina, will slowly enlarge to a diameter of about 10 centimeters. This will allow the baby to pass through and be delivered through the opening of the vagina. This process usually takes a while. However, if you have delivered vaginally before, labor can be quick.
Labor can cause severe pain, but keep in mind that every woman's labor is different. Everyone experiences pain differently. While planning the delivery, talk to your doctor about your options for pain relief.
There are many medical options for pain control. All treatments to relieve pain during labor have risks and benefits. Make sure you discuss these with your doctor:
Description of the Procedure
When the cervix is fully dilated (opened) and the baby seems to be heading down the birth canal, the nurses will help prepare you for delivery. Your legs may be draped with cloths. Some doctors will clean the area around the vagina with an antiseptic solution. Each time you have a contraction, you will be instructed to push. This involves you bearing down, like you are trying to have a bowel movement.
You may put your legs into holders, especially if you have an epidural. The nurses and your support people may hold your legs in a comfortable position. This will help you to push. Your doctor may encourage you to find a position that is right for you.
"Crowning" is when the baby's head is seen at the opening to the vagina. When this happens, you may be asked to slow your pushing. Depending on your delivery plan, the doctor may massage your perineum to gently stretch it. An episiotomy is not routinely done, but in some cases, it is necessary.
Once your baby's head is out, you will be asked to stop pushing. The doctor will check to make sure that the umbilical cord is not around the baby's neck. Then, you will be able to push the rest of the baby out. If the baby appears healthy and is breathing well, the baby may be placed on your stomach. The umbilical cord will be clamped and cut. Within the next 20 minutes, the placenta will be delivered.
Sometimes the baby's head does not move as expected through the birth canal. If this happens, your doctor may use forceps or vacuum extraction to move the baby.
Immediately After Procedure
How Long Will It Take?
The average time for you to deliver your first baby and the placenta is 12 hours. This can vary greatly, though.
Will It Hurt?
Labor causes severe pain during contractions. There may be brief periods of relief after each contraction. Talk to your doctor about your options for managing pain.
Average Hospital Stay
The usual length of stay for a vaginal delivery is 1-3 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
Having a baby will change you physically and emotionally.
Physically, you might have the following:
Emotionally, you may be feeling:
Ways to Take Care of Yourself
Call Your Doctor
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Pregnancy Association
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Women's Health Matters
Depression during and after pregnancy. Office on Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated July 12, 2017. Accessed September 11, 2017.
Epidural anesthesia. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 24, 2017. Accessed September 11, 2017.
Spinal block. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated August 8, 2015. Accessed September 11, 2017.
2/5/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Beckmann M, Garrett A. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;CD005123
12/4/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Marín Gabriel M, Llana Martín I, López Escobar A, et al. Randomized controlled trial of early skin-to-skin contact: effects on the mother and the newborn. Acta Paediatr. 2009;99(11):1630-1634.
4/29/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Hjelmstedt A, Shenoy ST, Stener-Victorin E, Lekander M, Bhat M, Balakumaran L, Waldenström U. Acupressure to reduce labor pain: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(11):1453-1459.
12/9/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Hodnett ED, Gates S, et al. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD003766.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
Last Updated: 12/9/2013
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.