by Julie Riley, MS, RD
Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. This article will focus on cystitis caused by an infection.
Bacteria can cause an infection in the bladder. The bacteria normally live in the colon or vagina. It may be passed or move to the area urine leaves the body. The bacteria can then travel up into the bladder. If a bladder infection is left untreated it can lead to a kidney infection.
Less often, acute cystitis nay be caused by medication or trauma.
Risk Factors TOP
Acute cystitis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:
Symptoms may include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. A sample of your urine will be studied for blood and pus. Sometimes the urine will be tested to look for the exact type of bacteria.
A CT scan may be needed for more severe or recurrent problems. The scan may help to see problems or blockages in the bladder.
A bladder infection can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all of the medication as recommended. A hospital stay may be needed with a severe infection. This will allow the antibiotics to be delivered through IV.
The infection may cause pain and spasms in the bladder. Your doctor may recommend medicine to help manage pain until it passes.
If the cystitis is caused by medication or trauma those causes will need to be managed.
To help decrease the risk of a bladder infection:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Urology Care Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed... . Updated August 12, 2016. Accessed September 29, 2016.
Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(77):771-776.
Cranberry. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 2015. Accessed March 3, 2016.
Katchman EA, Milo G, et al. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2005;118(11):1196-1207.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelonephritis and cystitis). DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116894/Uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-UTI-pyelonephritis-and-cystitis. Updated March 15, 2017. Accessed November 30, 2017.
What I need to know about urinary tract infections. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated September 2013. Accessed March 3, 2016.
5/6/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: Results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(1):23-30.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 3/2/2018
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.